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7 Facts About Marcus Garvey’s Friend, Duse Mohamad Ali You May Not Know

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Early Life

Duse Mohamad Ali (November 21, 1866 – June 25, 1945) was born to an Egyptian father who served in the army and a Sudanese mother during the French and English occupation of Egypt.

Ali was expected to become a doctor but his love for writing and acting pushed him into the arts.

Going to England

When his father died in battle during the Urabi Uprising and the British Bombardment of Alexandria in 1882, Ali was traveling back and forth between Egypt and England. At only 16, he stayed in England to attend King’s College and eventually went on to the University of London to finish up his education. In his early years of being in England, Ali began to get involved with the arts and political scene. He saw firsthand the damage English colonization had on Egypt, courtesy of his father’s death.

Ali Establishes Career  in Acting and Journalism

By the 1900s, Ali established himself as a actor and playwright, producing his original plays, The Jew’s Revenge (1903), A Daughter of Judah (1906), A Cleopatra Night (1907) and Lily of Bermuda (1909). However, this time was the beginning of his foray into journalism and politics. In 1912, The African Times and Orient Review was created by Ali and funded by West Africans who agreed with his political leanings.

The publication, which covered issues in the United States, the Caribbean, West Africa, South Africa and Egyptm was the first Black-owned newspaper in England.

It eventually attracted the attention of people like Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois and Alain Locke.

Ali and Marcus Garvey

The African Times and Orient Review also attracted a young Marcus Garvey, who was studying in London at the time.

In 1913, the two worked together writing articles about English colonization and Ali served as a mentor to Garvey, shaping some of his world views. The English shut down the paper because they feared it would incite a revolution, preventing the distribution of the paper to India and Africa in 1918.
However, in 1920, Ali restarted the paper after WWI and renamed it,  African and Orient Review.

African Nationalism

Ali was inspired by the work of his protégé, so he moved to the U.S and joined Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association.

He would go on to became the foreign secretary and the head of African Affairs until Garvey’s deportation from the United States in 1927.

Back to Africa

By the 1930s, Ali was plagued by failure and could not find any financial success from his many business ventures. So, he moved to Lagos, Nigeria to start another newspaper called, The Comet. It had a circulation in the thousands and came to be the financial boost he needed.

At the height of the paper’s popularity, it was one of the top ranked papers in Nigeria. He managed the paper for 11 years until it was sold.

After finding himself stereotyped and typecast in offensive acting roles, Ali persevered and challenged the racist imperialistic system that killed his father and brother. He went on to become a famous Black journalist and his articles were translated and published in Germany, France, Austria, Turkey, Egypt and Japan. Following a protracted illness, Mohamed Ali died at the age of 78 in the African Hospital, Lagos, on June 25, 1945. Attendees at his funeral numbered well over 5,000, including political, social and religious leaders.

New Audio Message from Boko Haram Leader Attacks Nigerian Army

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A new audio message purportedly from Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau calls the Nigerian army liars for saying troops have regained territory from the militant Islamist group.

Nigeria’s military said on Friday it had recaptured villages and rescued 90 people in a process that involved the “continuous elimination” of the group from Nigerian territory.

“They have lied about us saying they have retaken our territories, taken weapons and driven us away,” says the recording posted online.

“They are actually the ones whom we have driven away. They are all liars.”

Reuters could not independently verify the authenticity of the audio message. The Twitter feed of jihad monitoring site Site Intelligence said the Hausa language audio message was released by Shekau on Saturday.

Boko Haram has been fighting for six years to set up a state adhering to strict Islamic laws and at the start of 2015 controlled vast swathes of territory across three states in northeast Nigeria.

Nigeria’s army, aided by troops from Chad, Niger and Cameroon, said it pushed Boko Haram out of most of the territory earlier this year.

Suspected members of Boko Haram have killed around 800 people in Africa’s most populous nation in a spate of bombings and shootings since President Muhammadu Buhari was inaugurated as president on May 29, according to a Reuters tally.

In the recording, Shekau appeared to make references to Buhari’s visits to US President Barack Obama and French President Francois Hollande in July and September respectively.

“Buhari, you are yet to finish spending Obama’s money. The business you are doing with the money is not over yet because I am here alive. Your business with Francois Hollande is not yet complete because I am still alive,” he said.

Nigeria’s military has repeatedly claimed that Shekau has been killed over the last few years only for him to resurface in new videos and recordings, although security sources have said he may have been replaced by impostors.

In August, Chad’s President Idriss Deby said Shekau was wounded and had been replaced as leader by Mahamoud Daoud, adding that Shekau went to Maiduguri, capital of Borno state, after he was wounded.

source: defenceWeb

Rapper Sean Price Has Passed Away At Age 43

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Some of you might not be familiar with Sean Price, in which case we suggest you do ya Googles and learn about him.

The Brownsville, New York MC was once known as “Ruck” of the Duck Down/Boot Camp Clik group Heltah Skeltah who brought us the classic gem entitled “Leflaur Leflah Eshkoshka”.

After embarking on a solo career he quickly became a fan favorite for his aggressive style and witty sense of humor.

He released a series of mixtapes, namely Mic Tyson and Monkey Barz, which were lauded by critics and avid hip-hop heads.

According to industry insiders, Price was a devout family man and recently performed with his daughter at the Duck Down BBQ in Brownsville.

Unfortunately, there is no word at this time as to what caused his untimely death.

Rest in peace.

Tragic Story From A Survivor Of Human Trafficking In Maryland U.S.A

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Evelyn Chumbow : For a girl from Cameroon, the idea of America was seen only through a television screen.

America was a dream where she could marry the Fresh Prince of Bel Air and be a part of the Beverly Hills 90210 clique.

“The way we see America in Africa, oh my God, it’s like heaven,” said Evelyn Chumbow, a survivor of domestic labor trafficking. “You would have never told me I would see a homeless person or I would be enslaved in America. I would never, ever [have] thought that.”

Labor trafficking can be found in sweatshops, on farms, in restaurants and nail salons, on construction crews and custodial staffs and in American households, according to the Maryland Human Trafficking Task Force. Labor trafficking victims are more commonly immigrants brought to the United States than Americans, according to “Hidden in Plain Sight,” a 2014 Urban Institute-Northeastern University study.

Victims are lured into modern-day slavery with false promises of a better education, work opportunities and higher wages, in search of the American dream, according to the Urban Institute-Northeastern University study.

Immigrant women who don’t report

“Domestic work is mostly immigrant women,” said Tiffany Williams, former director of the Break the Chain campaign. “So even those who are on visas are in this precarious immigration status because the employer holds the key to the visa.

“Those who are undocumented don’t come forward, don’t report, don’t challenge unless it’s really bad,” Williams said, “because they don’t want to lose their immigration status.”

Researchers agree that labor trafficking is the leading form of human trafficking, but sex trafficking is the focus of more federal prosecutions, according to a 2015 report by Congressional Research Service, a non-partisan arm of the U.S. House and Senate.

“Unfortunately, the clandestine nature of trafficking makes estimating prevalence really difficult,” Lara Powers, hotline manager and program specialist at the National Human Trafficking Resource Center, said in an email.

The federal trafficking statute defines labor trafficking as obtaining a person for labor or services through the use of force, fraud or coercion to exploit them for involuntary servitude.

In 2012, the Department of Justice successfully prosecuted 138 traffickers, with 76 percent of the cases predominantly sex trafficking and 24 percent predominantly labor trafficking.

Because there is no template for what a labor trafficking case may look like, it often is difficult for the public to identify. And domestic labor trafficking in particular is out of sight, with the worker inside a household.

Victims do not always realize they have been trafficked. Victims’ relationships with their employers may start out as ordinary work situations and deteriorate into trafficking over time, Williams said.

Youngster from Cameroon

Chumbow was between 10 and 12 years old, according to court documents, when Theresa Mubang, an American citizen originally from Cameroon who is now 52, brought her to Silver Spring, after promising Chumbow’s family that she would receive a good education.

“But that’s not what happened when I got here,” said Chumbow, now 29.

According to federal court documents, Chumbow said Mubang forced her to cook, clean and care for her children without payment or schooling and routinely beat her. She’d strike Chumbow with the heel of a shoe or a metal broom, and she used a white plastic television cable to whip the girl’s hands or back until she bled, the documents say.

“Sometimes, when she was tired of beating me up, I had to stand up in her bedroom from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. I stand up there really straight, no sleep,” Chumbow said in an interview.

Mubang, now in prison, did not respond to a letter requesting comment.

It was years before Chumbow escaped. Because of isolation from the outside world, Chumbow says she had lost a sense of time and did not know her exact age when she first left Mubang.

A stay with an aunt did not work out. Chumbow eventually found a church and a Catholic charity that alerted authorities. At 17, Chumbow said, she was placed in foster care.

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act, which Congress passed in 2000, allows law enforcement to investigate and prosecute human trafficking, including sex and labor trafficking. The law offers legal protections to victims.

Most labor trafficking prosecuted federally

Most labor trafficking cases are prosecuted federally “because state law is less developed than federal law,” said Martina Vandenberg, founder and president of The Human Trafficking Pro Bono Legal Center.

“The laws have been, by and large, on the books a shorter period of time. State’s attorneys general and state prosecutors have tended to focus on sex alone because in the commonplace understanding of human trafficking, most people understand it as sex,” Vandenberg said. “It’s an added level of investigative sophistication to identify labor trafficking cases.”

Vandenberg said that state authorities rarely identify labor trafficking cases. “Frankly, the labor inspectors … are less robust than they should be, less active than they should be, in identifying this kind of abuse.”

Evidence can be difficult to assemble. While force and fraud can be found through physical signs and records, “coercion can take many subtle forms” and is harder to identify, according to a 2015 report from the National Domestic Worker Alliance.

Many cases are challenging to prove because they are rarely discovered while a victim is being trafficked, with few witnesses or physical evidence to corroborate the victim’s allegations, said Rachel Yasser, assistant U.S. attorney in Baltimore.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is responsible for both arresting and deporting immigrants, but it also investigates instances of human trafficking. Immigrant workers are afraid to cooperate with the agency because of its contradictory responsibilities and fear they might be deported, though they are victims, Williams said.

Many immigrant workers are more likely to cooperate with other investigators, such as those from the Department of Labor, she added.

Labor trafficking 25 percent of reported Md. cases

In 2014, about 25 percent of the 135 potential human trafficking cases reported in Maryland to the National Human Trafficking Resource Center involved labor trafficking. Domestic servitude accounted for 11 percent of the 135.

Many of the workers recruited from other countries come with hopes like Chumbow’s.

“They come with low levels of education and have a very sincere interest to make improvements in their lives to support their families, and are coming with the hope of achieving the American Dream,” said Isela Bañuelos, one of the co-authors of the 2014 Urban Institute and Northeastern University report.

“Perpetrators of labor trafficking are using this to lure people in, making false promises,” she said.

Almost a third of victims in the U.S. come from Latin America, more than 25 percent come from Southeast Asia and almost 11 percent come from Africa, according to the “Hidden in Plain Sight” report.

Of 122 closed labor trafficking cases from four U.S. locations — the urban Northeast, the rural Northeast, the South and the West — studied since 2000 by researchers from the Urban Institute and Northeastern University, about 10 percent of victims were trafficked from the U.S. and Canada.

Traffickers use the threat of an illegal immigration status to coerce victims by threatening arrest and telling them no help is available to improve their situation, according to the research.

But, Bañuelos said, more than 70 percent of studied trafficked victims legally came to the U.S. on a visa.

Traffickers dehumanize their victims and force their labor by controlling almost every aspect of their lives, researchers say. They control their movements and outside communication, psychologically and physically abuse them and deny them food and medical care all while living in substandard conditions, according to “Hidden in Plain Sight.”

A federal jury in Maryland convicted Mubang in 2004 of holding a juvenile for a term of involuntary servitude and harboring a juvenile for financial gain. In 2005, she was sentenced to more than 17 years in prison. She is scheduled for release in 2021.

Meanwhile, Chumbow has earned U.S. citizenship and her associate degree and is finishing her bachelor’s degree in homeland security at University of Maryland, University College.

Chumbow speaks to groups internationally about long-term services for human trafficking survivors.

“I am an advocate now. I’m using my experience and I’m teaching other people,” she said. “Yes we are survivors, but also we’re above that. We’re also human beings. We are the abolishers of the modern day slavery, and we have to work together.”

Watch the video below

source: lapostexamine

[ Interview ] Hip-Hop Producer Joshua Braud From The City Of New Orleans, Louisiana Talks About His Music

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Finally get to talk with Joshua Braud a very talented up and coming Hip-Hop Producer in the music industry.

Great to meet you Joshua Braud, we really appreciate this moment  and the free time  you  took out of your busy time to let us know what you are up to with your musical career.

We already know that you are a music producer and Hip-hop is one of your favorite thing  to do.
Let the world know exactly who is Joshua Braud and what your music is all about.

Since Hip Hop music became a reference to a lot of people, we are really sure that they want to know more about you.

Tell us about you: 
My real name is Joshua Braud. I'm a Producer, Songwriter and Engineer that is signed to BMI. I'm originally from New Orleans, Louisiana but currently living in Los Angeles.

When did you start making music: 

I'm a huge fan of Pharrell so when I was in the 9th grade and Jay Z dropped "Change Clothes" from the Black Album. Pharrell was crazy in it! I originally went to school to study Space Communications to later become an astronaut but after that I decided to peruse a career as a Radio DJ. From there I began creating my own beats.

 Who is your role model in the music world:

I'd have to say my father, Michael Braud. Without him I wouldn't have been exposed to nearly as many musical genres as I have been. He's the gatekeeper; the one who introduced me to the sounds of Led Zeppelin, Bob Marley, Teddy Riley... the list goes on

Is there anything you would do differently in your career:

Not at all. No regrets. Sure, I've had my ups and downs but I've come to understand that it's totally naturally. Every test that's been put in my way has been put there so I can overcome it. It not only makes me stronger but also helps me grow within my music.

Who would you want to do a tour/concert with:

Hands down, Michael Jackson. R.I.P

Do you ever get lost in the music:
 I definitely find myself with my headphones on and in another world when it comes to music. Music can take you anywhere you want to go without forcing you to move a muscle. The tricky thing is differentiating between the music and the music lifestyle, which can totally suck you in if you let it.

Thank you for your time and we hope that soon you will drop a new track that will make your fans go wild.

Naomi Campbell Sentenced To Six Months In Sicilian Prison

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Naomi Campbell has been sentenced to six months in prison by a Sicilian court for scratching a paparazzo’s eye back in 2009.

According to reports, the supermodel was given the sentence this week after photographer, Gaetano Di Giovanni, was taking photos of her stepping off of a boat with her then-boyfriend, Vladimir Doronin.

While the two were doing some sight-seeing through the streets of the Sicilian town, she allegedly hit the paparazzi member with her purse, which ended up scratching his eye. He reportedly had to seek medical attention for the following three days.

Despite the photographer withdrawing the charges, the court decided to move forward with the trail in the public interest due to “the intensity of the charges.”

E! Online reports the statement made by her lawyer, who vows to appeal her 6-month sentencing:
“We are appealing the ruling surrounding the 2009 incident,” attorney Guido Carlo Alleva said in a statement obtained by E! News.

“Due to the ongoing legal process, we cannot discuss the matter further at this time.”
We will keep you updated on the latest of Naomi Campbell’s sentencing.

Source: E! Online

Afro-Brazilians search DNA for pre-slavery origins

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More than a century after slavery officially ended in Brazil, DNA tests are giving Afro-Brazilians the intriguing chance to find out who they are beyond mere skin color.

“Above all, slaves lost their names and their identity. With these DNA tests, they can re-establish the connection,” said Carlos Alberto Jr, head of “Brazil: DNA Africa,” a series of five upcoming documentaries that aim to “restore the links broken by slavery.”

Slavery was abolished in Brazil 127 years ago, but the vast operation to force Africans to work the Portuguese colonists’ plantations and mines resulted in a black and mixed population that today accounts for just over half the 202 million total.

DNA testing has opened the door to following that identity trail back.

The tests are done in Washington by a company called African Ancestry. Anyone can buy one of their test kits and send this, with a saliva swab, for analysis.
With a database of more than 30,000 indigenous Africans, the company says it can trace original ethnic groups.

For the Brazilian documentaries, 150 people have been chosen—most of them black activists—from the five states where 4.5 million slaves were brought between the 16th and 19th centuries: Bahia, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, and Rio de Janeiro.

Tests are being done on maternal DNA.

“In the 19th century, there were eight Africans to every Portuguese and the idea of this project is also to show how Brazil was as much colonized by Africans,” Alberto said, pointing out that the white population was only boosted much later, in the 19th century, in a deliberate effort to change the country’s racial mix.

‘Incredible emotions’

Thanks to the project, actress Zeze Motta—who won fame as the slave Xica da Silva in a 1976 film of the same name—found out she was an ancestor of the Yoruba tribe, located in modern southwest Nigeria and Benin.

“The film’s historian and scriptwriter told me that judging by my features, my roots might be Gurunsi from Ivory Coast,” Motta said. “For years I lived with this version and suddenly at 70, a scientific test has shown me I’m Yoruba from Nigeria. That has left me with an incredible mix of emotions.”

She recounted how during a trip to Nigeria in the 1990s, she felt an inexplicable sadness that only now makes sense.
“All these years I was asking myself where this pain came from and now after the test, I understand,” Motta said.
Another documentary participant, Zulu Araujo, who heads a cultural center in Bahia, learned he descends from the mostly Muslim Tikar people in Cameroon.

“That was a surprise. I thought that like many in Bahia I must be Yoruba. I’ve had to change the identity I carried in my head for 62 years,” said Araujo, an expert in race relations.
“In Brazil, our origins were stripped from us in a sophisticated and brutal manner. They took away our ancestors’ papers and changed our names. It was a perverse strategy to keep domination.”

He visited Bankim, a Tikar village in Cameroon, as part of the documentary research.

“I was able to come face to face with my origins,” he said. “The physical and cultural similarities were clear. I recognized myself in the fact that they were extremely musical.”
To celebrate his new identity, he has had himself rebaptized Tikar in an Afro-Brazilian ceremony, he said.

Now, his hope is that the 52-minute documentaries will help restore Afro-Brazilians’ sense of pride in knowing that they are not merely descendants of slaves.
“What interests me is in creating conditions to get over the process of racism,” he said.

Surprise answers

For some, the DNA tests have meant confusion.

Journalist Luciana Barreto, 38, said she couldn’t wait to find out the African roots she’s always assumed she had. “But when I opened the envelope I learned I am 100 percent indigenous to South America. I am perplexed,” she said.

“It was a shock. As a (black) activist, I know that indigenous peoples here were massacred and still are and I felt responsible because I’d only been fighting for one side of myself.”
Now she’s waiting to find her father’s origins through DNA taken from her brother, who carries the father-to-son Y chromosome.

She said the unexpected results she received have strengthened her determination to “counter a country that denies its history and its racism. Few Brazilians can speak out as I can, to cry out that yes we are racists, that yes we exclude, and that we still segregate.”

Another who was surprised to find out that his roots are not what he thought they were was Ivanir dos Santos, organizer of Rio’s annual march against religious intolerance since 2007.
After thinking he must be of Yoruba origin, “the DNA told me I’m 100 percent European on my mother’s side,” he said.

“I’m impatiently waiting to know the DNA on my father’s side,” said dos Santos, 60.

The documentaries, which follow the visits to Africa by five Afro-Brazilians, including Araujo, will be shown in September.


Authorities Order Mosques Closed in North Cameroon

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YAOUNDE, Cameroon (AP) — Authorities have ordered the closure of mosques and Islamic schools following a series of suicide bombing attacks in northern Cameroon that have left at least 60 people dead, the region’s governor said Sunday.
Child beggars are also being ordered off the streets because all the suicide bombers so far have been children, including the 13-year-old female who detonated explosives in an attack Saturday evening.
While there have been no claims of responsibility, authorities have blamed the Islamic extremist group Boko Haram, which has pledged its allegiance to the Islamic State group and abducted hundreds of girls and young women.
The group’s leader has vowed to attack Cameroon because the Central African nation has aided neighboring Nigeria in its fight to defeat the extremists.
In the latest attack inside Cameroon, at least 20 people were killed and another 85 wounded Saturday evening in the northern town of Maroua. The suicide bombing came just days after another attack there earlier in the week.
Gov. Midjiyawa Bakari said he was implementing strict measures after stepped up security failed to thwart the second attack. Authorities believe the suicide bombers are coming from neighboring Nigeria, and the governor has ordered “a census of all visitors in all neighborhoods.” A curfew will also be in place from 8 p.m. until 6 a.m., he said.
The closures and restrictions have provoked some criticism.
“They should have better solutions to their problems. Why is that governor chasing the wrong horse?” asked 70-year-old Aladji Haman from the Maroua central mosque.
Cameroon’s Defense Minister Edgard Alain Mebe Ngo’o urged citizens to help the military by reporting any suspects or unusual activity.
“The population must develop a culture of vigilance because Boko Haram has changed strategy,” he said.
source: cameroononline

Meet Mimmie ( Mirriam ) Model And Fashion Designer In The U.K

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Model, Fashion Designer, CEO of ZBIL a charity Organistion, entrepreneur and long-lived style visionary Mirriam Musonda-salati has worked in the fashion & entertainment industries for nearly a decade.

She serves as Founder & CEO of U.K.-based Be Gorgeous Styles, an online ecommerce destination that offers an exhaustive selection of fashion and footwear, jewelry, hair products & extensions, health & beauty products, and accessories for both men and women.

The vast line offered by Be Gorgeous Styles includes the likes of: footwear, dresses, boots, dresses & skirts, blouses & shirts, vests, leggings, jackets & coats, earrings, necklaces, watches, rings, eye-liner, eye shadow, mascara, nail polish and lipstick. One-stop shopping, indeed!

Mirriam has also modeled in countless print campaigns, and starred in—and danced—in the music video for MP’s “No Dull Yourself.”

In addition, she worked directly with such events as The Miss Zambia U.K. Beauty Pageant, the Cancer Research Charity Fashion Show and Children’s Charity Fashion Show.

Born in Zambia and raised in the U.K., Mirriam earned a Bachelor’s degree (with honors) in Criminology & Psychology from Middlesex University.

Outside of her career, Mirriam enjoys poetry (reading and writing), Science & Geo, sports, shopping(!) and travelling. She also continues to study the latest psychological and criminological principles & practices, with the goal of ultimately helping to improve our society through the development of new theories and findings.

She continues to be inspired by her father—who was also a self-starter and a successful businessman throughout his career, ultimately serving as Director & Chairman of Cavendish University and a CEO of KSM Investiment Group Company.

Follow Mimmie on Twitter

Hollande acknowledges colonial-era Cameroon massacres but critics want apology

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French President François Hollande has broken a longstanding taboo on his country’s controversial role in the genocide of Cameroon’s Bamileke people. During the final leg of his west African tour in Yaoundé on Friday, he admitted that French forces had tried to quash colonial separatists in the 1950s and said he was ready to open up the history books.

''I recognise that there have been extremely traumatic and even tragic episodes,” Hollande declared at a press conference in Yaoundé, Cameroon, on Friday.
During Cameroon’s struggle for independence, “[colonial] government forces quashed the Bamileke people in Sanaga maritime, in the country’s western province,” he admitted.''

It’s the first time a French head of state has officially acknowledged France’s role in the repression of colonial separatists in Cameroon.
In the 1950s French forces were responsible for the massacre and exile of leaders of the dissident independent political party, the UPC, which was banned in 1955.
“Cameroon’s independence from France was a bitter struggle,” Cameroonian editorialist Gabriel Mbarga told RFI.

Nationalist unrest broke out at the end of France’s 10-year rule in 1955 and was brutally suppressed by French forces, leaving thousands dead.

“It became very violent after the suspension of the UPC independence party and the assassination of its leader Ruben Um Nyobe on 13 September 1958,” Mbarga said.
Estimates of the death toll, still debated by many experts, range from 100,000- 400,000 people killed between 1959 and 1964.
In the department of Sanaga maritime, largely populated by the ethnic group named the Bamileke, 120,000 people were killed in 1960 alone.

The Bamileke people were a prime target because they were suspected of harbouring UPC separatists, who controlled the western province.
“This bloody repression lasted until 1971 but it has never been acknowledged by French authorities. Many Cameroonians find that hard to accept,” Mbarga explained.
Cameroonians’ sensitivity over France’s failure to acknowledge the atrocities was exacerbated this week by the fact that, during his visit to Angola, Hollande visited the memorial of pro-independence leader Agostinho Neto, the country’s first president.

That gesture was seen by many Cameroonians as a sign of double standards and it is unlikely to have boosted Hollande’s credit rating in Yaoundé, where anti-French sentiment is growing, partly due to this denial of Cameroon’s colonial suffering.

“We are prepared, as we’ve always been, to open up the history books and search the archives,” Hollande said by way of compromise.
But this falls short of an official apology and is reminiscent of when France recognised the bitterness of Algeria’s independence struggle but omitted to say sorry.

The case of Cameroon is different.

As with Algeria, French forces behaved in a way that many consider betrayed the very foundations of Western democratic values. In Yaoundé this colonial legacy has had a long-term impact.
The Cameroon genocide was followed by independence in 1960, which gave rise to the election of Ahmadou Ahidjo, who was backed by the French government.

Africanists have long held the belief that the Bamileke massacre paved the way for the cosy relations enjoyed between French political leaders and their African counterparts.
Often referred to as Françafrique, that relationship is blamed for France’s complicity in corruption attributed to long-term president Paul Biya.

Acknowledging the massacres and opening up the history books could have a domino effect on France’s relationship with Cameroon, for which critics urge a new paradigm, is needed.

Source: RFI